Monday, March 30, 2020

Body Language Cultural Or Universal Essays -

Body Language: Cultural Or Universal? Body language and various other nonverbal cues have long been recognized as being of great importance to the facilitation of communication. There has been a long running debate as to whether body language signals and their meanings are culturally determined or whether such cues are innate and thus universal. The nature versus nurture dichotomy inherent in this debate is false; one does not preclude the others influence. Rather researchers should seek to address the question how much of nonverbal communication is innate and how much is culturally defined? Are there any true universal nonverbal cues or just universal tendencies modified to suit cultural ideals and constraints? It is my proposal that of all forms of nonverbal communication the most universal is the communication of emotions through facial expression. Other channels of nonverbal communication are also of great importance in many cultures. However which channels are emphasized, what cues are considered acceptable and the symbolic meaning of the cues may vary from culture to culture. Ekman and Friesen (1969; and discussed in Ekman and Keltner, 1997) undertook an important cross-cultural study to determine how easily and accurately people from various literate Western and non-Western cultures could identify the appropriate emotion term to match photographs they were shown. The photographs were of Caucasian faces posed in certain facial expressions. The terms the subjects were given to choose from were happiness, surprise, disgust, contempt, anger, fear and sadness. The result was consistent evidence of agreement across all cultures examined. In order to rule out the possibility that exposure to mass-media had taught the subjects to recognize Caucasian facial expressions Ekman and Friesen undertook a similar study among a visually isolated culture in New Guinea (Ekman, 1972). A different methodology was used; people were shown the photographs of posed Caucasian facial expressions and were asked to make up a story about the person and the moments leading up to that image. From these stories Ekman and Friesen concluded that these subjects were able to identify the emotions accurately. The one exception was that there seemed to be some confusion between surprise and fear expressions. Similar research was undertaken by Heider and Rosch (reported in Ekman, 1972) with the intent of disproving Ekman and Friesen. However, the data gathered also supported Ekman and Friesens conclusions. A similar experiment (Argyle, 1975) compared the perception of the emotions of English, Italian and Japanese performers by subjects from these three countries. The results (reported in Argyle, 1975) were as follows: Both the English and Italian subjects could identify their own and each others emotions but had difficulty with the Japanese. The Japanese subjects were able to identify the emotions of the English and Italians better than those groups had been able to judge the Japanese. However the Japanese subjects had difficulty determining Japanese facial expressions. This would seem to indicate that the Japanese face does not express emotion in the same manner as those of other cultures. However, another experiment (Ekman and Keltner, 1997) demonstrated different results. American and Japanese subjects were observed while watching films designed to evoke fear and disgust. During part of this observation the subjects were videotaped while watching the film alone. It was presumed that during this time no social rules would restrict the subjects display of emotion. No difference existed between the American and the Japanese subjects in the display of emotion when alone. When watching the film with an authority figure (the researcher) present the Japanese were more likely than the Americans to hide negative emotions with a smile. Observation of children who were born deaf and blind show that they make the same emotional expressions (Ekman and Keltner, 1997). There is no way that these children could have learned this behaviour through sensory input. Similarly, a study involving sighted babies under six months of age has showed that they react with fear to negative faces (Segerstrale and Molnar, 1997). These infants were too young to have learned which faces had negative connotations. It would have to be an innate response. Although different cultures define when and where it is acceptable to display certain emotions (i.e. crying at a funeral may or may not be expected) and the stimulus that triggers a certain emotion may vary from culture to culture, the facial expression of emotions seems to be a universal. There may be an evolutionary advantage to this form of communication. When people are communicating they tend to mimic the faces one another make. It has been shown that making a face associated with an emotional

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Free Essays on Happiness; Plato Vs. Aristotle

Webster’s Dictionary defines happiness as, â€Å"an agreeable feeling or condition of the soul arising from good fortune or propitious happening of any kind; the possession of those circumstances or that state of being which is attended enjoyment; the state of being happy; contentment; joyful satisfaction; felicity; blessedness.† Many attempts have been made throughout history to better define the word happiness, and the two best-known philosophers of Antiquity, Plato and Aristotle, spent much of their studies on the subject. Both men felt that happiness was an important factor of life. Plato argues on behalf of a life of justice leading to happiness while Aristotle argues that happiness is â€Å"the good† for man and the end goal of humanity. This paper will discuss the arguments of each Philosopher using the arguments posed in The Gorgias by Plato and the Nichomachean Ethics by Aristotle. In the opinion of Plato, the just life is its own reward, and he offers three basic arguments to prove this theory. Plato writes of a conversation between Socrates and Polus in The Gorgias. In this selection Plato utilizes questionable definitions for certain terms such as â€Å"happy† being defined as â€Å"admirable, or just, and good† and â€Å"miserable† being defined as â€Å"wicked or unjust†(G. 470e). First, Plato defines being happy as an attribute of being admirable and good. Using these definitions Plato can adjust his wording to show that â€Å"admirable† is opposite to â€Å"unjust† and therefore prove initially that an unjust person cannot be happy. Next, he approaches the topic of whether a person of great power can be happy and unjust, which, by Plato’s definitions is impossible, with the example of King Archelaus and his unjust activities (G. 470d – 471a). Plato shows through the conversation that having g reat power does not ensure happiness because one who has great power is not necessarily just. Using this example Plato ... Free Essays on Happiness; Plato Vs. Aristotle Free Essays on Happiness; Plato Vs. Aristotle Webster’s Dictionary defines happiness as, â€Å"an agreeable feeling or condition of the soul arising from good fortune or propitious happening of any kind; the possession of those circumstances or that state of being which is attended enjoyment; the state of being happy; contentment; joyful satisfaction; felicity; blessedness.† Many attempts have been made throughout history to better define the word happiness, and the two best-known philosophers of Antiquity, Plato and Aristotle, spent much of their studies on the subject. Both men felt that happiness was an important factor of life. Plato argues on behalf of a life of justice leading to happiness while Aristotle argues that happiness is â€Å"the good† for man and the end goal of humanity. This paper will discuss the arguments of each Philosopher using the arguments posed in The Gorgias by Plato and the Nichomachean Ethics by Aristotle. In the opinion of Plato, the just life is its own reward, and he offers three basic arguments to prove this theory. Plato writes of a conversation between Socrates and Polus in The Gorgias. In this selection Plato utilizes questionable definitions for certain terms such as â€Å"happy† being defined as â€Å"admirable, or just, and good† and â€Å"miserable† being defined as â€Å"wicked or unjust†(G. 470e). First, Plato defines being happy as an attribute of being admirable and good. Using these definitions Plato can adjust his wording to show that â€Å"admirable† is opposite to â€Å"unjust† and therefore prove initially that an unjust person cannot be happy. Next, he approaches the topic of whether a person of great power can be happy and unjust, which, by Plato’s definitions is impossible, with the example of King Archelaus and his unjust activities (G. 470d – 471a). Plato shows through the conversation that having g reat power does not ensure happiness because one who has great power is not necessarily just. Using this example Plato ...

Thursday, February 20, 2020

The unpredictability of future climate brings significant threats for Essay

The unpredictability of future climate brings significant threats for insurance companies. The unpredictability of futu - Essay Example In order to ensure this security, a deal is entered between two parties - the insurer and the policyholder. In the agreement, there is a given amount referred to as premium that is to be paid regularly by the policyholder to the insurance organization. In return, the insurance company agrees to pay a defined amount referred to as benefit or claim payment incase a predefined loss is incurred by the policyholder (Anderson & Brown, 2005, p.2). To avoid ambiguity during compensation, the agreement has to define which losses to be covered by the insurance policies. This would include medical insurance, life insurance, property insurance and many others. The insurance companies establish the premiums for the different insurance policies based on the value of the losses to be compensated and the frequency with which the losses have been observed to occur. Insurance may seem to be expensive and a waste of resources to a policyholder who has not suffered any loss over a long period of time. H owever, in case the unexpected loss occurs, it will be cheaper to have the loss compensated by an insurer. It is actually a way through which risk is transferred from one party to the other (Anderson & Brown, 2005, p.3; WetFeet, 2008, p.64). The advantage that the insurers enjoy is that not all of their policyholders will suffer losses at the same time. This kind of a pooling by the different policyholders enables the few policyholders that have had some loss to be compensated without loss to the insurance company. Climatic conditions contribute to various losses incurred in various fields in the insurance industry. Poor climatic conditions can interfere with business operations, can cause damage and loss of property, can lead to increased disease infection, and increased mortality rates emanating from accidents, floods, earthquakes and other disasters. The climate unpredictability brings significant threats for insurance companies Supportive reasons The occurrences of climatic chan ges and the inability of insurance companies to predict this future occurrence can be a threat to the success of the organizations. Firstly, the disasters often catch the insurance companies unaware due to poor mechanisms for mitigating the catastrophes. The climatic changes may not follow a predefined pattern and an attempt to make a prediction based on the previous occurrences often leads to miscalculations (Mills, 2005, p.1). This increases the vulnerability of the insurance organizations to the disasters. It often results in an increased liability claim leading to losses by the insurance organizations. The insurers are then not able to compensate for the losses that have been incurred (Godoy, 2011). The unpredictable climatic conditions like future occurrences of floods may make an insurance company to incur losses due excessive compensation of the losses incurred by the policyholders. The climatic conditions resulting into global warming provides humble opportunities for the oc currences of other natural catastrophes like wildfire that can be of great losses to the insurance organizations. For instance, the losses that were incurred by the United State’s insurance organizations due to wildfires were valued at $6.5 billion between 1970 and 2004 (Allianz Group& World Wildlife Fund, 2006,

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

My Journey as a Future Educator Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

My Journey as a Future Educator - Essay Example As my first day as a teacher’s assistant approached, my self-confidence took a huge dip. I felt so nervous, as I watched children in a playground in the school I’ve passed on my way home one day. The children I’ve estimated to be in the age group I will be working with seemed so intimidating all of a sudden. The older ones would climb to the highest point of the tower in the play equipment, flailing their arms ignoring the adults’ warnings way below them on the ground. I thought these children were fearless! I was afraid for myself. I guess it won’t be a piece of cake after all. My initial observation inspired me to turn to more studying about children at this age and how I should deal with them. I read several theories about this stage. I learned that working with all children regardless of age involves many considerations. One is to see each child at his or her own developmental level and create activities and opportunities appropriate to their pa rticular levels. The child needs to develop holistically, meaning each developmental area is given attention to so growth and development as a whole person ensues. The teacher needs careful planning and implementation of activities so that children under their care grow in all areas.The process of growth and maturity of an individual entails development in physical, cognitive, social, emotional and moral areas. Development in one area affects another. In children, this is very obvious, as they are at a stage in life when development occurs rapidly.... Physically, a child’s body grows in accordance to the genetic structure he was born with. Logically, children grow bigger and taller and every year, their growth is obviously apparent in the clothes that don’t fit them anymore from a few months before, and the height and weight that drastically increased from their last doctor’s check-up. Physically, young children develop more strength as their bodies’ proportions become more adult-like. Beginnings of athletic skills such as running, jumping and hopping are manifested. Fine motors skills, such as writing and drawing, develop slowly Their motor skills also develop in accordance to their developmental needs. This means, the older they get, the more things they are expected to do, so they develop physical skills to be able to do such tasks. Intelligence is another area where one grows over time. I learned that by the time a child steps into the early childhood stage, his brain has attained 90% of its adult w eight by age 5 (Developmental Stages, 2011). This develops faster than any other body part. Jean Piaget, among others, has outlined a remarkable framework in the cognitive development of a person and describes each stage. Five to seven year old children belong to Piaget’s Preoperational Period. This marks the time when a child becomes able to represent objects and knowledge through imitation, symbolic play, drawing, mental images and spoken language. Lack of conservation skills is also characteristic of this stage. â€Å"Conservation is defined as the knowledge that the number, mass, area, length, weight, and volume of objects are not changed by physically rearranging the objects.† (Brewer, 2001, p. 58). The seven year olds are actually in transition to the next cognitive stage which is the Concrete

Monday, January 27, 2020

Structural Elements That Define Good Screenplay Film Studies Essay

Structural Elements That Define Good Screenplay Film Studies Essay Through my prism, a good screenplay can be made in many ways, as long as the writer of the artwork keeps up to some basic rules that have been reinforced through the years. In a relation to that, there are three essential elements without which it is impossible to create a fine script. The chief structure of a script should be based on the concept of thesis-antithesis-synthesis and accordingly it is supposed to consist of at least three acts, respectively beginning, middle and end. Key features also include a good conflict and a good character without which the screenplay can be defined as boring and unstimulating. One must not forget, though, that a good character is also a matter of a personal vision. To begin with, the idea of thesis-antithesis-synthesis is not just an important feature of a good film script but it is also not new. It is the simple formula created by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel that came to be a feature in every good movie or play the common spectator sees today. Thesis is defined as a separate action that breaks out during a film or as a character who performs an action. In contrast, antithesis is actualized when an action opposite to the thesis act occurs. It is the converse of the thesis, as annotated. When combined, thesis and antithesis devise the synthesis. Synthesis is the resolution of the clash between the thesis and the antithesis, without matter if the result is positive or negative. Hegels concept also plays key role in finding out what the premise of a certain screenplay could be. A good example of Hegels formula being used is Frank Capras American drama film Its a Wonderful Life (1946). To supplement, the scenes where George is on the verge of com mitting a suicide and Clarences successful attempt to prevent it is an illustration of how this dialectical method is applied. In one of them, Georges view that killing himself will make everyone happier is challenged by Clarence who presents himself as having been sent by God to protect him. In another one, the guardian angel reveals to the protagonist what would have happened, had George never been born his brother, Harry would have died at the age of eight, because George would not have been there to save him [the scene of Harrys grave]; George would also have neither wife, nor kids, had he never existed; he would not have built a house for them and for himself too. In the final act, the conflict between the thesis (Georges wish to commit suicide) and the antithesis (Clarences way to show the protagonist what the world would be like without him) gets resolved: George prays to God to bring back the life he has had, realizing how wonderful it was and gets back to his wife and kids . As a result, the premise of the film is conspicuous: life is a gift that should not be spurned. Furthermore, it is well known that the conflict is the heart of any story, be it a screenplay or a play that is performed in theaters. Therefore, a story without any real conflict is not a story at all. In his book, Story: Substance, Structure, Style and the Principles of Screenwriting, the famous screenwriting instructor, Robert McKee talks in details about the levels of conflict that are present in a certain screenplay. He explains that there are two main types of conflict external and internal. Although in most screenplays the external conflict (conflict that occurs as a result of social conditions) is dominant, a good story should include a large portion of internal conflict (a conflict within the character) as well. In terms of the external conflict, it is clear that a protagonist in the film usually gets what they want in the end. However, if they carry out their wish without any obstacles on their way that will try to prevent them from doing so, the piece of work will be cons idered disinteresting and such motion pictures surely disappoint the viewer. So, to strengthen the conflict, the obstacle is often made to be superior to the protagonist in some ways. For instance, in The Terminator (1984), the main protagonist, named Kyle Reese, is sent back in time from the future with an assignment to protect Sarah Connor. The obstacle he has to deal with, however, is not a human but a cyborg (living human tissue over a metal skeleton), stronger, faster, and extremely hard to kill. This technique makes the viewers ask themselves whether Reese will deal with the obstacle or Sarah will be killed. In contrast, a great illustration of an internal conflict can be seen in George Lucas film, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (2005). The chief character, Anakin Skywalker is a Jedi Knight whose wife, Padme Amidala is pregnant. One night, while sleeping, he has nightmares of her dying in childbirth. Later on, Palpatine, who is the main antagonist, uses this nightm are Anakin tells him about and ascertains Anakin that there is a power to cheat death but it cannot be learned by a Jedi and the only way to achieve this power is by embracing the dark side of the Force. From this moment on, the struggle inside Anakin reaches deeper level. It appears that he is supposed to choose between two things: saving his wife from certain death by selling his soul to the dark side or remaining loyal to the Jedi and, as he fears, possibly losing Padme. There is one emblematical scene that clearly shows that fear. It is an intercut combination of the young Skywalker sitting alone on a chair in the Jedi temple council chamber thinking of his wife and Padme in her apartment, possibly looking in direction towards the Jedi Temple. The Jedi is confused as he keeps on starring outside. Minutes later, Palpatines voice-over could be heard: You do know, dont you, if the Jedi destroy me, any chance of saving her will be lost. In this moment, tears run off Anakins face, as if he says to himself I cant do it, I cant let her die. When watching this scene, after Anakin leaves the Jedi temple, we think that the conflict within him has finished. But actually, a lot more is to come, to which I will pay greater attention when I talk about good character being necessary to create a good screenplay. In addition, a story, that is considered to be in the category of good stories, will also comply with the concept of a good character which is usually the protagonist. When I say good, though, it does not mean that the character themselves are the so called good guy but that there must be enough levels of internal conflict within the character. Of course, before creating levels of conflict within the character, one has to know their character as screenwriter Syd Field says in his book Screenplay: The Foundations of Screenwriting. Knowing the character means to know: whose story it is? Who is the main character? What do they want? Without these basics, a character would not even exist. Nevertheless, are these basics enough for a character, so that they can be called a good one? Certainly not. This is the place where deeper levels of conflict are necessary to be shown, without matter if they are internal within the protagonist or interpersonal (between the protagonist and other people. It is well known that it is even preferrable to have a mix of both. To this common statement, I would add that a mix of both types of conflict has to be present indeed but the writer has to be careful how they do that mix. If it is so complex that the creator themselves have difficulties interpreting the levels of conflict, this will lead to a confusion and disinterest in the eyes of the spectator. For instance, if one gets back to Anakin Skywalker as presented in Star Wars Episode 3, they will find out that there are many levels of conflict some of which can be seen even after he has turned to the dark side of the Force. In the scene where the young Jedi turns to the dark side, before the turning point itself, there is a mix of extrapersonal struggle and internal conflict within Anakin. The intramural struggle actually emerges as a result of the extrapersonal clash between Jedi Master Mace Windu (the black guy with the purple lightsaber) and Chancellor Palpatine who has now been r evealed to be Darth Sidious the main antagonist in the movie. As soon as Anakin enters the hall where the two Force masters fought each other some minutes ago, we see the following picture: The chancellor is on the ground, next to a broken window. Mace Windu is about to finish him off. This is where the mixed conflict starts. Palpatines words He is a traitor! mark the beginning of this mixed struggle. Windu then addresses the same words towards Palpatine. Afterwards, the close up of Anakins face and his facial expression show some confusion, as if he asks himself Who is right? Who should I listen to?. In an attempt to persuade Anakin to help him, Palpatine again states he could save his wife from certain death. In a response, the Jedi Master implies to the young Skywalker that the chancellor is only trying to turn him into his ally by talking such lies. As he puts his arm on his face to prevent himself from being blinded by the shining lightning bolts which the chancellor shoots fr om his hand, the collision inside him gets stronger. Shall he trust Palpatine/Darth Sidious in what he says? Or shall he take it that Master Windu is right? For the common viewer, the answer who is right and who is wrong is obvious. Not for the young Skywalker though. Suddenly, the mixed struggle turns into an interpersonal row between the two Jedi whether the chancellor shall be killed or tried and respectively jailed. On the other hand, after Anakin helps Sidious kill the Jedi Master, an internal sense of regret arises within the now ex-Jedi which, nevertheless, is ended by his new master. As a result, the viewer can infer that it is namely the great deal of confusion which sets forth the rise of interpersonal conflicts combined with interpersonal struggles that make Anakin Skywalker a good character. Finally, last but not least important is one of Syd Fields main ideas that a good character is also a matter of point of view. When he says point of view, he means, that a good character must represent the vision of the role they are in. He illustrates his concept with the example that if ones main character is a parent, they have to behave like such and to share a point of view parents have. Here, Field is undoubtedly right. To illustrate, in the film Home Alone 3 (1997), the main protagonist is an 8-year old kid named Alex, whose mother obviously shares Syd Fields idea shown in the instance of a parent character he gives. The act where Alex falls ill to chicken pox is an implication of that. He starts getting worried about staying alone at home because it looks like it is happening to him for the very first time. An 8-year old child that has no quite real concept of when things happen, would normally be afraid of becoming a victim of a tornado during the winter, or a thief (as he c alls them grown up crooks), or even of his own imagination. This is only one of the moments where actress Haviland Morris and respectively her character, Karen Pruitt, the mother of Alex, shows her parental point of view. Her conspicuous reaction to her sons fears would be to try and suppress them which she succeeds by explaining him that tornadoes, for instance, do not manifest during the winter. In addition, she clarifies to her little urchin that they (his family) live in one of Chicagos safest neighborhoods. As for imagination, she truly replies that it is under nobodys control but under his own. In the set where Alex calls the police twice because he really saw a thief but nobody trusts him, her parental point of view manifests again in a divergent way. Alex is surely right but what he lacks is evidence. Therefore his mothers likely response is to not trust him but the police chief, to tell him off and respectively being annoyed with him. In contrast, by the end, when everyone finds out Alex Pruitt is right and the thieves are apprehended, Mrs. Pruitts understandable action is to apologize to her son for mistrusting him. This is namely how Home Alone 3 reflects Syd Fields statement that every character has to represent the role they have been assigned properly. To summarize, a good screenplay can be created in many ways. As it became understandable from the above expressed thesis and argument, nevertheless, there are some standard elements, without which it is not possible to achieve this desired effect. At least a three-act structure is crucial, so that a certain film or play can find its place among the good pieces of art. The three-act structure must consist of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. The synthesis can be positive, negative or between the two, i.e. bittersweet. A good story consists of a conflict shown in many manifestations and circumstances, internal (within character) or external (between people, factions, etc.) alike. Turning points are essential within a conflict as well, without matter if they are in favor of certain character or for their embarassment. The final piece that a screenwriter has to think about well, is a good character. This means lots of levels of conflicts within the respective personality as well as good character from the point of view of their creator himself/herself. With the instances given through citing works of Syd Field and Robert McKee, and the films cited above, the basic idea of a good screenplay structure has been consecrated. WORDS: 2500 (without bibliography, filmography and footnotes) Bibliography Capra, Frank, Its a Wonderful Life scenes online at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pA_AgSDgXc8HYPERLINK http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pA_AgSDgXc8feature=relatedHYPERLINK http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pA_AgSDgXc8feature=relatedfeature=related in Steve Chens www.youtube.com (2005, Google Inc., San Bruno, CA) Definitions online at: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Hegelian+dialectic in Lexico Publishing Groups www.reference.com owned by InterActiveCorp Field, Syd, Screenplay: The Foundations of Screenwriting, (1979, 1982, 1994 Dell Publishing; New York) George Lucas, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Script, scenes 88 and 125, found at Col Needhams http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Star-Wars-Revenge-of-the-Sith.html George Lucas, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Script, Scene 128 found in Col Needhams http://www.imsdb.com/scripts/Star-Wars-Revenge-of-the-Sith.html (1990) McKee, Robert, Story: Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles of Screenwriting, (1997 New York, USA) Sanders, Steve, http://www.steves-digicams.com/knowledge-center/how-tos/filmmaking-tips/screenwriting-what-makes-a-good-story.html in wwwHYPERLINK http://www.steves-digicams.com/.HYPERLINK http://www.steves-digicams.com/stevesHYPERLINK http://www.steves-digicams.com/-HYPERLINK http://www.steves-digicams.com/digicamsHYPERLINK http://www.steves-digicams.com/.HYPERLINK http://www.steves-digicams.com/com , (1997, Internet Brands Family, El Segundo, CA, USA)

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Movie †Psycho Essay

Psycho (1960) is a powerful complex psychological thriller directed by Alfred Hitchcock. This horror movie is based on the novel written by Robert Bloch. Story-wise, though, I do not consider this movie to be an extraordinary but its brilliant excursion and its ingenious construction and above all its wonderful musical scores invented and innovated by Bernard Herrmann has made this movie all time great. Bernard Herrmann was born in New York in 1911. He studied music at Julliard School of Music and joined CBS radio in 1934. He quickly joined young Orson Welles to score his radio plays, including the notorious Wars of the World and within a very short span of time he established himself as a recognized film music scorer. Although remarkably versatile, Herrmann proved particularly adept at scoring dark psychological melodramas, such as Hangover Squire (1945) and On Dangerous Ground (1951), and it was perhaps inevitable that he would be teamed eventually with master of suspense and artist of â€Å"Psycho† Alfred Hitchcock. Their subsequent partnership resulted in a composer-director relationship unmatched in film history of creativity, flair and cinematic symbiosis. We find fantasy, romance, nostalgia, tenderness; all there in Herrmann but the unique scores of â€Å"Psycho†evidently suggest Herrmann’s departure from traditional compositional techniques. The most noticeable departure from film music custom is hat. Herrmann elected a daring and controversial orchestral combination: strings alone. Now such a combination imposes severe limitations on the range of available tone colors. This means a commensurate increase of composing problems, since generally important for composers to be able to call on the many resources of the symphonic ensemble- woodwinds, brass and percussion as well as strings- for variety and contrast in the treatment of musical material. But Herrmann’s selection of string alone deprived him of many tried-and-true musical formulas and effects normally employed in the scoring of horror and suspense films. Going by the established music theories, we find that music theory describes how sounds, which travel in waves, are notated, and how what is sounded, or played, is perceived by the listeners. Every object has a resonant frequency, which is determined by the object composition. Musical sounds are composed of pitch, duration and timbre. Pitch is determined by the sound’s frequency of vibration, whereas Rhythm is the arrangement of sound in time and Meter animates time in regular pulse groupings called measures. Melody is the unfolding in musical time of a principal single line of pitches. This line can be sounded alone, unaccompanied, known as monophony. It can also be accompanied by chords, known as homophony. Melody is often the most identifiable element in western music. Instrumentation is the study and practice of writing music for musical instruments. Writing for a specific instrument requires the ability to take into account the special properties of that instrument. Where as Diegetic Music, which is also called â€Å"source music† is produced by people or devices that are part of the story space of the film. Diegetic sounds are those pieces of sound that the characters in the movie should be able to hear, whether the sound source is visible or nor.   Coming back to â€Å"Psycho†, along with the strings, Herrmann has wonderfully used Diegetic Music also here. One does not have to be musician to notice a marked absence of tunes or melodies in the sense in which these terms are generally used. It is safe to say that in Psycho Herrmann was simply following his own customary practice in this respect but the result in this case is a special, disturbing quality, one which contributes greatly to the scores overall effectiveness. In an interview given in 1971, Herrmann explained that he had used only strings for Psycho because he felt that he could complement the black-and-white photography of the film by creating a black-and white sound. In most people mind the strings are associated first and foremost with romance. Nine times out of ten when a love a scene takes place on the screen the violins will soar in a big tune, the cellos throb in a passionate counter melody. But in Psycho, the level of score created by Herrmann with strings is mainly due to the fact that Strings span the longest effective gamut of notes; have an effective range of dynamics unmatched by the other group; and within the boundaries of their basic single tone colors they can command a great number and variety of special effects. And when the expressive range of string orchestra is compared to that of black-and-white photography, Herrmann analogy becomes perfectly clear. After watching the movie first scene that comes to my mind and the images that conjured are those of Janet Leigh being hacked to death in the shower and now I realize why even people who have not seen the movie are aware of it but Bernard Herrmann’s strident, discordant music, the â€Å"bird-shriek† and â€Å"distorted screaming bird-cries† appears to be one of the most horrifying cues ever composed, Herrmann brilliantly proved here that the view of the camera is very important aspect of film making but to enforce that view and to provide fluidity ,music is even more important. In conclusion this can be safely said that No film sound track library would be complete without â€Å"Psycho†.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  References    Movie : –   Psycho U.S. Release date : – June 1960 Running Length  Ã‚   : – 1:48 MPAA Classification : –   R (Violence) Cast : – Anthony Perkins, Vera Miles, John Gavin, Martin Balsam, Janet Leigh Director and Producer   :- Alfred Hitchcock Screenplay : Joseph Stefano based on the novel by Robert Bloch Cinematography : John L Russell Music : Bernard Herrmann U.S. Distributer : Paramount Pictures.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Barriers of Research Utilization for Nurses

C L I N I C A L N U R S I N G IS S U E S Bridging the divide: a survey of nurses’ opinions regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization in the practice setting Alison Margaret Hutchinson BAppSc, MBioeth PhD Candidate, Victorian Centre for Nursing Practice Research, School of Nursing, University of Melbourne, Australia Linda Johnston BSc, PhD, Dip N Professor in Neonatal Nursing Research, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, and Associate Director, Victorian Centre for Nursing Practice Research, Melbourne, Australia Submitted for publication: 4 March 2003 Accepted for publication: 29 August 2003Correspondence: Alison M. Hutchinson School of Nursing University of Melbourne 1/723 Swanston St Carlton, VIC 3053 Australia Telephone: ? 61 3 8344 0800 E-mail: [email  protected] com H U T C H I N S O N A . M . & J O H N S T O N L . ( 2 0 0 4 ) Journal of Clinical Nursing 13, 304–315 Bridging the divide: a survey of nurses’ opinions regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization in the practice setting Background. Many researchers have explored the barriers to research uptake in order to overcome them and identify strategies to facilitate research utilization.However, the research–practice gap remains a persistent issue for the nursing profession. Aims and objectives. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of perceived in? uences on nurses’ utilization of research, and explore what differences or commonalities exist between the ? ndings of this research and those of studies that have been conducted in various countries during the past 10 years. Design. Nurses were surveyed to elicit their opinions regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization.The instrument comprised a 29-item validated questionnaire, titled Barriers to Research Utilisation Scale (BARRIERS Scale), an eight-item scale of facilitators, provision for respondents to record additional barriers and /or facilitators and a series of demographic questions. Method. The questionnaire was administered in 2001 to all nurses (n ? 761) working at a major teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. A 45% response rate was achieved. Results. Greatest barriers to research utilization reported included time constraints, lack of awareness of available research literature, insuf? ient authority to change practice, inadequate skills in critical appraisal and lack of support for implementation of research ? ndings. Greatest facilitators to research utilization reported included availability of more time to review and implement research ? ndings, availability of more relevant research and colleague support. Conclusion. One of the most striking features of the ? ndings of the present study is that perceptions of Australian nurses are remarkably consistent with reported perceptions of nurses in the US, UK and Northern Ireland during the past decade. Relevance to clinical practice.If the use of res earch evidence in practice results in better outcomes for our patients, this behoves us, as a profession, to address issues surrounding support for implementation of research ? ndings, authority to 304 O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Clinical nursing issues Barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization change practice, time constraints and ability to critically appraise research with conviction and a sense of urgency. Key words: barriers to research utilization, facilitators of research utilization, research dissemination, research implementation, research utilizationIntroduction and background For over 25 years research utilization has been discussed in the nursing literature with growing enthusiasm and amid increasing calls for the use of research ? ndings in practice. Additionally, the evidence-based practice movement, which emanated in the early 1990s (Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group, 1992) has highlighted the importance of incorporating research ? ndings into pra ctice. Furthermore, controversy surrounding the achievement of professional status has resulted in an increased awareness of the need for a research-based body of knowledge to underpin nursing practice.Gennaro et al. (2001, p. 314) contend: Using research in practice not only bene? ts patients but also strengthens nursing as a profession. If nursing is truly a profession, and not just a job or an occupation, nurses have to be able to continually evaluate the care they give and be accountable for providing the best possible care. Evaluating nursing care means that nurses also have to evaluate nursing research and determine if there is a better way to provide care. Twelve years prior, Walsh & Ford (1989) warned that the professional integrity of nursing was threatened by dependence upon experience-based practice.Similarly, Winter (1990, p. 138) cautioned that conduct of nursing practice in this manner is ‘the antithesis of professionalism, a barrier to independence, and a detrim ent to quality care. ’ Winter therefore, recommended that nurses ‘evaluate their status as research consumers, to identify problems in this area, and to develop means to better use research ? ndings’ (p. 138). Evidence-based practice, which should comprise the use of broad ranging sources of evidence, including the clinician’s expertise and patient preference (Sackett et al. , 1996), includes the use of research evidence as a subset (Estabrooks, 1999).Consistent with the classi? cation of knowledge utilization, three types of research use have been outlined (Stetler, 1994a,b; Berggren, 1996). The ? rst is described as ‘instrumental use’ and involves acting on research ? ndings in explicit, direct ways, for example application of research ? ndings in the development of a clinical pathway. The second is termed ‘conceptual use’ and involves using research ? ndings in less speci? c ways, for example changing thinking. The ? nal type o f research use, described as ‘symbolic use’, involves the use of research results to support a predetermined position.The nursing literature is replete with examples of limited use of research in practice and discussion surrounding perceived barriers to research utilization (Hunt, 1981; Gould, 1986; Closs & Cheater, 1994; Lacey, 1994). Despite this, the phenomenon of the research–practice gap, the gap between the conduct of research and use of that research in practice, remains an issue of major importance for the nursing profession. Many researchers have explored the barriers to research uptake in order to overcome them and identify strategies to facilitate research utilization (Kirchhoff, 1982; MacGuire, 1990; Funk et al. 1991a,b, 1995b; Closs & Cheater, 1994; Hicks, 1994, 1996; Lacey, 1994; Rizzuto et al. , 1994; Hunt, 1996; Walsh, 1997a,b). Hunt (1981) suggested that nurses fail to utilize research ? ndings because they do not know about them, do not understa nd them, do not believe them, do not know how to apply them, and are not allowed to use them. According to Hunt (1997), the barriers to research utilization and, therefore, to evidence-based practice fall into ? ve main categories: research, access to research, nurses, process of utilization and organization.Self-reported utilization of research is one method that has frequently been implemented to elicit the extent of research utilization. Responses to selected research ? ndings have been used to elicit and explore respondents’ awareness and use of respective ? ndings (Kete? an, 1975; Berggren, 1996). Numerous researchers have also undertaken to investigate, through self-reporting, the opinions of nurses’ in regard to barriers to research utilization in the practice setting. Funk et al. (1991b) explored research utilization in the US using a postal questionnaire titled the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (BARRIERS Scale).Their purpose was to develop a tool to a ssess the perceptions of clinicians, administrators and academics in regard to barriers to research utilization in clinical practice. Rogers’ (1995) model of ‘diffusion of innovations’, a theoretical framework, which describes the process of communication, through certain channels within a social network, of an idea, practice or object over time, was used to develop a 29-item scale. The questionnaire was sent out to a random sample of 5000 members of the American Nurses’ Association with a resulting response rate of 40%. 305O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 304–315 A. M. Hutchinson and L. Johnston On the data generated, Funk et al. (1991b) undertook an exploratory factor analysis, to elicit a four-factor solution which closely corresponded with Rogers’ (1995) ‘diffusion of innovations’ model. The factors translated into characteristics of the adopter comprising the nurse’s research values, s kills and awareness; the organization incorporating setting barriers and limitations; the innovation including qualities of the research; and communication including accessibility and presentation of the research.Items associated with the clinical setting, a characteristic of the organization, were perceived as the main barriers to research utilization. These included the views that nurses lack suf? cient authority to implement change; nurses have insuf? cient time to implement change; and there is a lack of cooperation from medical staff. Approximately 21% of the respondents in this study were classi? ed as administrators. Over three quarters of the items on the BARRIERS Scale were rated as great or moderate barriers by over half the administrators. The administrators identi? d factors relating to the nurse, the organizational setting and the presentation of research among the greatest barriers. Overall, they cited the organizational setting as the greatest barrier to research use. Approximately 46% of the respondents were classi? ed as clinicians (nurses working in the clinical setting). The clinicians overwhelmingly identi? ed factors associated with the organizational setting as being the greatest barriers to research utilization. They rated all eight factors associated with the setting in the top 10 barriers to research utilization.The clinicians rated perceived ‘lack of authority to change patient care procedures’, ‘insuf? cient time on the job to implement new ideas’ and being ‘unaware of the research’ as the top three barriers to research utilization. The BARRIERS Scale (Funk et al. , 1991b) has been used extensively since it was developed in 1991, as one method to explore the perceived in? uences on nurses’ utilization of research ? ndings in their practice. At least 17 studies that employed the BARRIERS Scale to elicit opinions of nurses regarding barriers to research utilization in practice have been rep orted in the nursing literature.Most studies reported the barriers in ranked order according to the percentage of respondents who rated items as moderate or great barriers. Insuf? cient time to read research and/or implement new ideas was rated in the top three barriers in 13 studies (Funk et al. , 1991a, 1995a; Carroll et al. , 1997; Dunn et al. , 1997; Lewis et al. , 1998; Nolan et al. , 1998; Rutledge et al. , 1998; Retsas & Nolan, 1999; Closs et al. , 2000; Parahoo, 2000; Retsas, 2000; Grif? ths et al. , 2001; Marsh et al. , 2001; Parahoo & McCaughan, 2001).A perceived lack of authority to change patient care procedures was reported in the top three barriers in eight studies (Funk et al. , 1991a; Walsh, 1997a; Nolan 306 et al. , 1998; Closs et al. , 2000; Parahoo, 2000; Retsas, 2000; Marsh et al. , 2001; Parahoo & McCaughan, 2001). In eight studies, the item ‘statistical analyses are not understandable’, was cited in the top three barriers (Funk et al. , 1995b; Dunn et al. , 1997; Walsh, 1997a,b; Rutledge et al. , 1998; Parahoo, 2000; Grif? ths et al. , 2001; Marsh et al. , 2001). ‘Inadequate facilities for implementation’ was cited in the top three barriers in ? e studies (Kajermo et al. , 1998; Nolan et al. , 1998; Retsas, 2000; Grif? ths et al. , 2001; Marsh et al. , 2001). Finally, the item ‘lack of awareness of research ? ndings’ was reported in the top three barriers in four studies (Funk et al. , 1991a, 1995a; Carroll et al. , 1997; Lewis et al. , 1998; Retsas & Nolan, 1999). It is acknowledged that these studies comprised varying populations of nurses, employed differing sampling methods, used sample sizes ranging from 58 to 1368 respondents and resultant response rates ranged from 27 to 76%.In some studies, minor rewording of a limited number of items in the tool had been undertaken. Furthermore, some studies included only 28 of 29 barrier items included in the original BARRIERS Scale. Factor analysis, a stat istical technique aimed at reducing the number of variables by grouping those that relate, to form relatively independent subgroups (Crichton, 2001; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001), was undertaken in a limited number of these studies. In the UK, Dunn et al. (1997) tested the factor model proposed by Funk et al. (1991b), using con? rmatory factor analysis, a complex statistical technique used to test a heory or model (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). Attempts to load each item onto a single identi? ed factor were found to be unsuccessful and they concluded that the US model was inappropriate for their data. Closs & Bryar (2001) further explored the appropriateness of the BARRIERS Scale for use in the UK through exploratory factor analysis. The model identi? ed included the following four factors: bene? ts of research for practice, quality of research, accessibility of research, and resources for implementation. Finally, Marsh et al. (2001) tested, using con? matory factor analysis, a revised v ersion of the BARRIERS Scale. The revision comprised minor changes in wording such as substitution of the term ‘administrator’ with the term ‘manager’. A factor structure that was not possible to interpret resulted and they concluded that the model proposed by Funk et al. (1991b) was not supported and had limited subscale validity in the UK setting. In the light of these ? ndings and those of Dunn et al. (1997), Marsh et al. (2001) suggested that the factor model arising from the original BARRIERS Scale was not sustained in the international context.However, in Australia, Retsas & Nolan (1999) undertook an exploratory factor analysis resulting in a three-factor solution comprising: (i) nurses’ perceptions about the usefulness of research in O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 304–315 Clinical nursing issues Barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization clinical practice, (ii) generating change to practice based on research, and (iii) accessibility of research. Again, in Australia, a four-factor solution arose from another exploratory factor analysis undertaken by Retsas (2000).The resulting factors were conceptualized as: accessibility of research ? ndings, anticipated outcomes of using research, organizational support to use research, and support from others to use research. Given these ? ndings in the Australian context, an exploratory factor analysis was employed in the present study to explore what model would arise from data generated using the BARRIERS Scale. The aim of the present study was to gain an understanding of perceived in? uences on nurses’ utilization of research in a particular practice setting, and explore what differences or commonalities exist between the ? dings of this research and those of studies which have been conducted during the past 10 years in various countries around the world. This study was undertaken as part of a larger study designed to exp lore the phenomenon of research utilization by nurses in the clinical setting. The relative importance of barrier and facilitator items and the factor model arising from this data will in? uence development of future stages of this larger study. who then took responsibility for distribution. It cannot be guaranteed, however, that this process in fact resulted in all nurses receiving the questionnaire.The questionnaire included the 29-item BARRIERS Scale in addition to an eight-item facilitator scale and a series of demographic questions. The respondents were asked to return completed questionnaires in the self-addressed envelope supplied, by either placing them in the internal mail or placing them in the ‘return’ box supplied in their ward or department. Return of completed questionnaires implied consent to participate and all responses were anonymous. Setting The setting for this study was a 310-bed major teaching hospital offering specialist services in Melbourne, Aus tralia. SampleApproximately 960 nurses work in the organization. All Registered Nurses working during the 4-week distribution time frame were invited to complete the questionnaire. This self-selecting, convenience sample therefore, excluded nurses on leave at the time of the study. The study The research question addressed in this study was: What are nurses’ perceptions of the barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization in the practice setting? Instrument The questionnaire comprised three sections. The ? rst section contained the 29 randomly ordered items from the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (Funk et al. 1991b), which respondents were asked to rate, on a four-point Likert type scale, the extent to which they believed each item was a barrier to their use of research in practice. The options included 1 ? ‘to no extent’, 2 ? ‘to a little extent’, 4 ? ‘to a moderate extent’ and 5 ? ‘to a large extent’. A â €˜no opinion’ ? 3 option was also given. The respondents were then asked to nominate and rate (1 ? greatest barrier, 2 ? second greatest barrier, and 3 ? third greatest barrier) the items they considered to be the top three barriers.Further to this, the respondents were given the opportunity to list and rate, according to the above-mentioned Likert scale, any additional items they perceived to be barriers. The second section of the survey contained eight items (Table 4), which respondents were asked to rate according to the extent to which they considered them to be a facilitator of research utilization using the Likert scale described above. The respondents were also asked to nominate and rate, from 1 to 3, the items they considered to be the three greatest facilitators of research utilization.Again, the respondents were given the opportunity to list and rate, according to the 307 Method A survey design was chosen to elicit opinions of nurses. This method was selected bec ause the ‘BARRIERS Scale’, a validated questionnaire, based on the work of Funk et al. (1991b), and designed to elicit nurses’ views about barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization in their practice, was found to have high reliability. Approval to use the tool was gained from the authors. Permission was also given to include questions crafted by the investigators to elicit nurses’ opinions about facilitators of research utilization.Approval to conduct the project was sought and granted by the hospital research ethics committee to ensure the rights and dignity of all respondents were protected. Nurses working during the 4-week survey distribution time frame (n ? 761) were invited to complete the self-administered questionnaire. It was intended that every nurse receive a personally addressed envelope containing the questionnaire and a self-addressed return envelope. To facilitate this, the envelopes were hand delivered to a nominated nurse on ea ch ward or department O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 304–315A. M. Hutchinson and L. Johnston Likert scale, perceived facilitators not listed in the survey. Section 3 of the survey included a series of demographic questions. Validity Content validity, i. e. whether the questions in the tool accurately measure what is supposed to be measured (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 1998), of the instrument was supported by the literature on research utilization, the research utilization questionnaire developed by the Conduct and Utilization of Research in Nursing Project (Crane et al. , 1977), and data gathered from nurses. Input was also gained from experts in the ? ld of research utilization, nursing research, nursing practice and a psychometrician to establish face validity, i. e. whether the tool appears to measure the concept intended (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 1998), and content validity from an extensive list of potential items. Those items for which face and content validity were established were retained. Further to piloting of the instrument, two additional items were included and some minor rewording of other items resulted. The BARRIERS Scale has been found to have good reliability, with Cronbach’s alpha coef? ients of between 0. 65 and 0. 80 for the four factors, and item-total correlations from 0. 30 to 0. 53 (Funk et al. , 1991b). Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of internal consistency, which is related to the reliability of the instrument. A Cronbach’s alpha of †¡0. 7 is considered to be good. Internal consistency is the extent to which items in the scale measure the same concept (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 1998). Item total correlations refer to the relationship between the question or item and the total scale score (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 1998). Data analysisData analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 10. 0; SPSS Inc. , Chicago, IL, USA) software. Frequency and descriptive statistics were employed to describe the demographic characteristics of respondents. Analysis of these data indicated that a wide cross section of nursing staff responded to the questionnaire. Factor analytic procedures were employed to reduce the 29 barrier items to factors. The ‘no opinion’ responses (coded to be in the centre of the scale) were included in the factor analytic procedure, on the basis of statistical advice.Suitability of the data for undertaking factor analysis is determined by testing for sampling adequacy and sphericity. The Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy at 0. 83 was in excess of the recommended value of 0. 6 (Kaiser, 1974), indicating that the 308 correlations or factor loadings, which re? ect the strength of the relationship between barrier items, were high. The Bartlett test of sphericity at 2118. 3 was statistically signi? cant (P < 0. 001). On the basis of these results, factor analysis was considered appropriate.The factor analysis method employed consisted of principal component analysis (PCA), a method of reducing a number of variables (barrier items) to groupings to aid interpretation of the underlying relationships between the variables (Crichton, 2000) whilst capturing as much of the variance in the data as possible. PCA revealed eight components with an eigenvalue exceeding one, indicating that up to eight factors could be retained in the ? nal factor solution. Inspection of the scree plot, a plot of the variance encompassed by the factors, failed to provide a clear indication for the number of factors to include.Eight factors were considered too many to be meaningful, thus factor solutions from two to seven factors were explored. A solution comprising four factors was considered most meaningful. Examination of the factor loadings was then undertaken to determine which items belonged to each factor. Consistent with the procedure employed by Funk et al. (1991b), items were considered to have loaded if they had a factor loading of 0. 4 or more. Varimax rotation, a statistical method employed to simplify and aid interpretation of factors, was then applied.Whilst factor analysis assists in reducing the number of variables to groupings and aids in interpretation of the underlying structure of the data, it does not identify the relative importance of individual items. Thus, while one factor may account for the largest amount of variance in the factor solution it does not mean that the items within that factor are the greatest barriers to research utilization. In order to determine the relative signi? cance of each barrier item, the number of respondents who reported them as a moderate or great barrier was calculated and items were ranked accordingly.Additional barriers recorded by participants were grouped thematically. Similarly, to determine the relative signi? cance of each facilitator item, the number of respondents who reported them as a moderate or great facilitator was calculated and items were ranked accordingly. Additional facilitators recorded by participants were grouped thematically. Results Demographics A total of 317 nurses returned the questionnaires, representing a 45% response rate, assuming that all nurses did, in fact, receive a personally addressed envelope. The age range of respondents was 43 years (minimum ? 1 years, O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 304–315 Clinical nursing issues Barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization maximum ? 64 years) while the range in years since registration was 42 years. The demographic characteristics of the nurses (Table 1) were consistent with those of the State of Victoria’s nursing workforce (The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 1999). Factor analysis A four-factor solution was selected as the most appropriate model arising from PCA of the 29 barrier items. This accounted for 39. % of the total variance in re sponses to all barrier items. The factor groupings including the loading for each barrier item and the titles allocated to each factor are included in Table 2. According to the correlation coef? cient or factor loading measure of †¡0. 4, two items, ‘research reports/articles are not published fast enough’, and ‘the research has not been replicated’, failed to load on any of the four factors. Table 1 Nurse demographics (n ? 317) Variable Gender Male Female Missing Age (years) Experience Registered Nurse (years) Clinical experience (years) Years since most recent quali? ation Highest quali? cation Division 2 certi? cate for registration Division 1 hospital certi? cate for registration Tertiary diploma/degree for registration Specialist nursing certi? cate Graduate diploma Masters by coursework Masters by research Others (including education and management quali? cations) Missing Principle job function Clinical Administrative Research Education Others Mis sing Research experience Yes No Missing N (%) Mean (SD) 24 (7. 6) 291 (91. 8) 2 (0. 6) 33. 8 (9. 73) 12. 6 (9. 95) 11. 35 (8. 8) 4. 28 (6. 52) 14 (4. 4) 23 (7. 3) 104 (32. 8) 26 34 9 1 87 (8. 2) (10. 7) (2. 8) (0. 3) (27. ) Factor 1, comprising eight items with loadings of 0. 73 to 0. 43, includes items relating to characteristics of the organization that in? uence research-based change. Eight items loaded onto factor 2 with loadings of 0. 66 to 0. 40. These items are associated with qualities of research and potential outcomes associated with the implementation of research ? ndings. Factor 3 with seven items loading 0. 60 to 0. 41, relates to the nurse’s research skills, beliefs and role limitations. Factor four refers to communication and accessibility of research ? ndings onto which ? ve items loaded 0. 67 to 0. 42.The four factor groupings comprising setting, nurse, research and presentation, generated in the US study 10 years ago (Funk et al. , 1991b), were similar to gr oupings that arose from factor analysis in the present study (Table 2). Cronbach’s alphas were calculated for each factor generated. For factors 1–3 the alpha coef? cients were 0. 75, 0. 74 and 0. 70, respectively, demonstrating good reliability. The alpha coef? cient for factor 4 was lower at 0. 54. The total scale alpha was 0. 86, which indicates that the scale can be considered reliable with this sample. Item-total correlations ranged from 0. 1 to 0. 60. Although a low correlation between some items and the total score was evident, deleting any of these items would have resulted in a reduction in reliability of the scale. Relative importance of barrier and facilitator items The percentages of items perceived by nurses’ as great or moderate barriers are summarized in Table 3. The respondents were also given the opportunity to list and rate any additional perceived barriers not included in the questionnaire. About 27% (85) of respondents documented a total of 1 74 barriers. However, analysis revealed that only 11% (36) of respondents actually identi? d additional barriers. The remainder had reiterated or reworded barrier items already included in the tool. The additional barrier items listed by respondents were grouped into themes, which included funding, organizational commitment, research training, implementation strategy and professional responsibility. The percentages of items perceived by nurses’ as great or moderate facilitators are summarized in Table 4. The respondents were also given the opportunity to list and rate additional perceived facilitators. Eighteen per cent (57) of respondents took the opportunity to record a total of 90 facilitators. Of these, 7. % (24) actually identi? ed additional facilitators whereas the remainder had rephrased or repeated items already included in the tool. Consistent with the themes identi? ed for the additional barriers were funding, organizational commitment, active participation in rese arch 309 19 (6. 0) 252 28 6 10 15 6 (79. 5) (8. 8) (1. 9) (3. 2) (4. 7) (1. 9) 207 (65. 3) 105 (33. 1) 5 (1. 6) O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 304–315 A. M. Hutchinson and L. Johnston Table 2 BARRIERS Scale factors and factor loadings US factor groupings Factor loadings Communalities Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4Barrier item Factor 1: Organizational in? uences on research-based change Physician will not cooperate with implementation Administration will not allow implementation The nurse does not feels she/he has enough authority to change patient care procedures The facilities are inadequate for implementation Other staff are not supportive of implementation The nurse feels results are not generalizable to own setting The nurse is unwilling to change/try new ideas Factor 2: Qualities of the research and potential outcomes of implementation The research has methodological inadequacies The literature reports con? cting results The conclu sions drawn from the research are not justi? ed The research is not relevant to the nurse’s practice The nurse is uncertain whether to believe the results of the research The research is not reported clearly and readably Statistical analyses are not understandable The nurse feels the bene? ts of changing practice will be minimal Factor 3: Nurses’ research skills, beliefs and role limitations The nurse sees little bene? for self The nurse does not feel capable of evaluating the quality of the research There is not a documented need to change practice The nurse does not see the value of research for practice The amount of research information is overwhelming The nurse is isolated from knowledgeable colleagues with whom to discuss the research There is insuf? cient time on the job to implement new ideas Factor 4: Communication and accessibility of research ? dings Research reports/articles are not readily available Implications for practice are not made clear The nurse is unaware of the research The relevant literature is not compiled in one place The nurse does not have time to read research Setting Setting Setting Setting Setting Setting Nurse 0. 55 0. 52 0. 42 0. 42 0. 34 0. 39 0. 36 0. 73 0. 71 0. 56 0. 54 0. 53 0. 49 0. 43 0. 09 0. 10 0. 06 0. 11 0. 17 0. 30 0. 01 A0. 02 A0. 01 0. 31 A0. 04 0. 19 0. 23 0. 41 0. 09 A0. 04 0. 05 0. 33 0. 02 0. 01 A0. 09 Research Research Research Presentation Research Presentation PresentationNurse 0. 46 0. 38 0. 44 0. 43 0. 46 0. 33 0. 33 0. 46 0. 17 0. 11 0. 11 0. 22 0. 27 0. 11 A0. 04 0. 36 0. 66 0. 59 0. 57 0. 55 0. 53 0. 49 0. 47 0. 40 0. 03 0. 12 0. 30 A0. 13 0. 32 0. 18 0. 03 0. 38 0. 00 0. 04 A0. 05 0. 25 0. 07 0. 19 0. 32 A0. 14 Nurse Nurse Nurse Nurse * Nurse Setting Presentation Presentation Nurse Presentation Setting 0. 57 0. 45 0. 35 0. 55 0. 29 0. 31 0. 38 0. 45 0. 47 0. 33 0. 25 0. 31 0. 23 A0. 04 A0. 04 0. 15 0. 05 0. 31 0. 28 0. 01 0. 06 A0. 04 0. 13 0. 22 0. 39 0. 26 0. 14 0. 47 A0. 01 0. 11 A0. 17 0. 00 0. 31 0. 09 0. 3 A0. 14 0. 60 0. 58 0. 57 0. 55 0. 51 0. 42 0. 41 0. 00 A0. 09 0. 16 0. 13 0. 26 0. 04 0. 21 0. 09 A0. 04 0. 15 0. 16 0. 31 0. 67 0. 60 0. 54 0. 45 0. 42 Two items, ‘research reports/articles are not published fast enough’ and ‘the research has not been replicated’, did not load at the 0. 4 level in this analysis. *The item, ‘the amount of research information is overwhelming’ failed to load on any factor in the Funk et al. model. process – experience, strategy to ensure project completion, implementation strategies, and professional attitude.Discussion The present study generated a four-factor solution with similarities to that produced in the US by Funk et al. (1991b) and in the UK by Closs & Bryar (2001). The ? rst factor comprises characteristics of the organization and re? ects health professional and other resource support for change 310 associated with the implementation of research ? ndings. More broadly , the theme ‘organizational commitment’ identi? ed following analysis of the additional perceived barriers listed by respondents, appears to be associated with this factor.Organizational commitment, many respondents felt, would facilitate mobilization of resources to promote change. Factor 2 relates to qualities of research and potential outcomes associated with the implementation of research ? ndings. This factor re? ects the nurse’s reservations about reliability and validity of research ? ndings and conclusions, O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 304–315 Clinical nursing issues Table 3 BARRIERS Scale items in rank order Barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization Barrier items The nurse does not have time to read research There is insuf? ient time on the job to implement new ideas The nurse is unaware of the research The nurse does not feel she/he has enough authority to change patient care procedures Statistica l analyses are not understandable The relevant literature is not compiled in one place Physicians will not cooperate with the implementation The nurse does not feel capable of evaluating the quality of the research The facilities are inadequate for implementation Other staff are not supportive of implementation Research reports/articles are not readily available The nurse feels results are not generalizable to own setting The amount of research information is overwhelming Implications for practice are not made clear The research is not reported clearly and readably The research has not been replicated The nurse is isolated from knowledgeable colleagues with whom to discuss the research Administration will not allow implementation The research is not relevant to the nurse’s practice The literature reports con? icting results The nurse feels the bene? s of changing practice will be minimal The nurse is uncertain whether to believe the results of the research Research reports/ar ticles are not published fast enough The nurse is unwilling to change/try new ideas The research has methodological inadequacies The nurse sees little bene? t for self There is not a documented need to change practice The nurse does not see the value of research for practice The conclusions drawn from the research are not justi? ed Reporting item as moderate or great barrier (%) 78. 3 73. 8 66. 2 64. 7 64. 1 58. 7 56. 1 55. 8 52 52 50. 8 50. 8 45. 7 45. 5 43. 3 41. 3 41 35 34. 4 34 31. 9 30. 9 30. 6 29. 4 25. 5 23. 3 22. 1 17 13. 8 Item mean score (SD) 4. 06 3. 9 3. 64 3. 51 3. 56 3. 51 3. 41 3. 3 3. 23 3. 16 3. 19 3. 09 3. 07 3. 0 3. 01 3. 16 2. 76 2. 88 2. 67 2. 87 2. 52 2. 58 2. 81 2. 34 2. 85 2. 25 2. 27 1. 9 2. (1. 21) (1. 3) (1. 4) (1. 39) (1. 32) (1. 26) (1. 33) (1. 39) (1. 3) (1. 29) (1. 35) (1. 26) (1. 35) (1. 22) (1. 25) (1. 14) (1. 49) (1. 18) (1. 28) (1. 11) (1. 3) (1. 29) (1. 21) (1. 34) (1. 0) (1. 26) (1. 24) (1. 21) (1. 02) Responding ‘no opinion’ or non- response (%) 0. 9 1. 6 1. 6 0. 9 3. 8 13 7. 6 3. 5 8. 8 6. 3 6. 3 3. 5 6. 9 5 8. 2 26. 1 3. 8 19. 6 4. 4 18. 9 3. 5 4. 7 25. 2 2. 2 32. 5 3. 5 8. 5 1. 6 21 Table 4 Facilitator items in rank order Reporting item as moderate or great facilitator (%) 89. 6 89. 5 84. 8 82. 3 82. 0 81. 4 81. 3 78. 2 Number (%) responding ‘no opinion’ or non-response 8 (2. 5) 6 9 6 10 (1. 8) (2. 8) (1. 8) (3. 2)Facilitator item Increasing the time available for reviewing and implementing research ? ndings Conducting more clinically focused and relevant research Providing colleague support network/mechanisms Advanced education to increase your research knowledge base Enhancing managerial support and encouragement of research implementation Improving availability and accessibility of research reports Improving the understandability of research reports Employing nurses with research skills to serve as role models Item mean score (SD) 4. 52 (0. 93) 4. 39 4. 21 4. 11 4. 15 (0. 94) (1. 02) (1. 13) (1. 08) 4. 12 (1. 11) 4. 16 (1. 1) 4. 04 (1. 22) 5 (1. 5) 8 (2. 5) 9 (2. 9)O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 304–315 311 A. M. Hutchinson and L. Johnston in addition to bene? ts of use of ? ndings in practice. Factor 3 focuses on characteristics of the nurse. In particular, this factor is associated with the nurse’s beliefs about the value of research and their research skills, in addition to the limitations of their role. The fourth factor is concerned with characteristics of communication. The focus of this factor centres on access to research ? ndings and understanding of the implications of ? ndings. The issues encompassed within this factor re? ect organizational barriers to access, and research presentation barriers.These factors are congruent with the concepts characterized in Rogers’ (1995) model of ‘diffusion of innovations’, including characteristics of the adopter, organization, innovation and communication , on which the BARRIERS Scale was developed. Two barrier items, ‘research reports/articles are not published fast enough’ and ‘the research has not been replicated’, failed to load suf? ciently onto a factor and were subsequently discarded. Exclusion of these items from the model re? ects their minimal signi? cance in relation to the underlying dimensions of the factors. That these items were ranked 23 and 16, respectively, is not surprising because they become less relevant when there is a perceived lack of time to read research and implement change as re? cted in the top two nominated barriers to research utilization. It is also important to note that over one quarter of respondents selected the ‘no opinion’ option or failed to respond to both of these items, which further suggests their lack of importance to respondents. The majority of respondents in this study rated approximately 40% of the barriers items as moderate or great barriers. Thi s is compared with the majority of nurse clinicians in the US (Funk et al. , 1991a) and nurses in the UK (Dunn et al. , 1997), who rated about 65% of the barrier items as moderate or great barriers. Overall, this group of Australian nurses perceived there to be fewer barriers to esearch utilization than their colleagues in the UK or US, with a mean score of 43. 7% of respondents rating all the barriers as moderate or great. In the UK (Walsh, 1997a) and the US (Funk et al. , 1991a) mean scores of 59. 8 and 55. 7%, respectively, re? ect the proportion of respondents who rated all barriers as moderate or great. Possible in? uences such as time, population, nursing education programmes should be acknowledged when considering these comparisons. Content analysis of the data comprising additional perceived barriers elicited ? ve new themes respondents associated with barriers to research utilization. Revision of the instrument to re? ect the themes identi? d and changes that have occurred over the past 10 years may be warranted to achieve a more valid scale for the setting in which it was used in this study. The addition of items consistent with changes in the availability of technological resources, information availability and use, and education may enhance the content validity of the scale. The ranking of perceived barriers in practice resulting from this study showed considerable consistency with rankings reported in other studies, as previously discussed. The top three barriers reported in 12 other studies fell within the top 10 barriers identi? ed in this study. Furthermore, two of the top three barriers in an additional two studies fell within the top 10 barriers identi? ed in the present study. The barrier item ‘there is insuf? ient time on the job to implement new ideas’ was reported within the top three barriers in 13 studies, including this and another Australian study (Retsas, 2000). When Spearman’s rank order correlation coef? cients were generated to compare the rank ordering of perceived barriers, a strong positive correlation between this and several other studies was evident (Table 5). Whilst acknowledging differences in nursing populations, sample size, sampling methods, response rates, and minor variations in item wording and number, this suggests a large degree of consistency regarding Study Funk et al. (1991a) Funk et al. (1995a) Dunn et al. (1997) Rutledge et al. (1998) Lewis et al. (1998) Kajermo et al. (1998) Retsas & Nolan (1999) Parahoo (2000) Retsas (2000) Closs et al. 2000) Parahoo & McCaughan (2001) Grif? ths et al. (2001) Location USA USA UK USA USA Sweden Australia Northern Ireland Australia UK Northern Ireland UK r 0. 866 0. 779 0. 835 0. 816 0. 879 0. 719 0. 884 0. 837 0. 801 0. 762 0. 799 0. 912 P 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 0. 000 Coef? cient of determination (%) 75 61 70 66 77 52 78 70 64 58 64 83 Table 5 Barrier rank order correlations 312 O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 304–315 Clinical nursing issues Barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization nurses’ perceptions of the relative importance of the barrier items. Marsh et al. 2001) however, caution against international comparisons with the original US data because changes in nursing education and roles, technology, funding and collaboration with other disciplines since then, may invalidate such comparisons. Nonetheless, despite these changes, the ? ndings of the present study have consistencies with not only the US data of 1991 but also more recent studies in the US, UK, Sweden, Northern Ireland and Australia (Table 5). Thus, notwithstanding the increasing momentum of the evidence-based practice movement in recent years, the pursuit of professional status by the nursing profession, the move of nursing education to the tertiary sector, increased access to systematic reviews and research databases, the research – practice gap persists.In the light of the plethora of research and theoretical literature on the research–practice gap and issues surrounding research utilization, it is of concern that nurses’ perceptions of the barriers to research utilization appear to remain consistent. In particular, issues surrounding support for implementation of research ? ndings, authority to change practice, time constraints and ability critically to appraise research continue to be perceived by nurses as the greatest barriers to research utilization. This raises important questions. Firstly, do such perceptions re? ect the reality of contemporary nursing? Or rather, do they represent unchallenged, traditionally held and ? rmly entrenched beliefs, which are founded on an understanding of nursing in a socio-historic context that is no longer relevant? If such perceptions do, in fact, re? ct the reality of current day nursing practice, despite the changes and progress that have been ma de in health care and nursing over the last decade, it behoves us, as a profession, to address the issues related to time, authority, support and skills in critical appraisal with conviction and a sense of urgency. Contextual issues including the socio-political environment, organizational culture and interprofessional relations need to be taken into serious consideration when exploring and formulating potential strategies to overcome these barriers. The hospital in which this study was conducted has since undertaken to explore and develop strategies to address and overcome barriers to, and reinforce and strengthen facilitators of research utilization highlighted in the ? ndings. ther studies using the BARRIERS Scale, may re? ect a response bias. That is, nurses with a positive attitude to research may have been more likely to complete the questionnaire. Internal consistency, the extent to which items in the scale measure the same concept (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 1998), of the tool w as reasonable, although not as high as that reported by Funk et al. (1991b). For seven items, more than 10% of the respondents nominated ‘no opinion’ or failed to respond. Furthermore, this study was conducted in one organization; the ? ndings are therefore context speci? c, which makes it dif? cult to generalize to other settings. However, there is consistency over ime and between countries in regard to nurses’ perceptions of the barriers to research utilization. Conclusion In order to gain an understanding of perceived in? uences on nurses’ utilization of research in a particular practice setting, nurses were surveyed to elicit their opinions regarding barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization. Many of the perceived barriers to research utilization reported by this group of Australian nurses are consistent with reported perceptions of nurses in the US, UK and Northern Ireland during the past decade. Time was the most important barrier percei ved by nurses in this study, which is re? ected by responses to the items, ‘the nurse does not have time to read research’ and ‘there is insuf? ient time on the job to implement new ideas’, resulting in them being ranked as the top two barriers to research utilization. Consistent with this ? nding was the ranking of facilitator item ‘increasing the time available for reviewing and implementing research ? ndings’ as the most important facilitator to research utilization. The employment of qualitative research methods, such as observation and interview, will contribute further to our knowledge about barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilization by nurses by allowing deeper exploration of experiences, perception and issues faced by nurses in the utilization of research in their practice.Fundamental questions about whether nurses’ perceptions actually re? ect the reality of the current context of nursing need to be further investiga ted. Future research should also examine issues surrounding the use of time by nurses. Questions exploring how much additional time nurses require in order to read the relevant literature and how nurses can be given more time to implement new ideas, need to be addressed. Issues related to nurses’ perception of their authority to change patient care procedures, the support and cooperation afforded by doctors and others, the facilities and availability of resources, and their skills in critical appraisal, also require further 313 LimitationsReporting bias associated with the self-report method raises questions about the extent to which the responses accurately represent nurses’ perceptions of the barriers to research utilization. The low response rate achieved in this study, although consistent with response rates reported in several O 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 13, 304–315 A. M. Hutchinson and L. Johnston exploration. Investigatio n of the information-seeking behaviour of nurses, the means by which they gain and synthesize new research knowledge and the way in which they apply that knowledge to their decision making, will further contribute to our understanding of the research–practice gap phenomenon.Measurement of the actual extent of research utilization by nurses in the practice setting presents a major challenge for researchers in this ? eld. Acknowledgements The authors thank Sandra Funk for her permission to use the BARRIERS Scale for the purpose of this study. We wish to acknowledge and thank the nurses who completed the questionnaire. The authors also wish to acknowledge the statistical assistance provided by Ms Anne Solterbeck, Statistical Consulting Centre, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Melbourne. Contributions Study design: LJ, AMH; data analysis: AMH; manuscript preparation: AMH, LJ; literature review: AMH. 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